West End in the Twin Cities is large, at 350,000 sq. ft., but not so huge that it should have had a problem leasing. Yet, 10 years on, there are sections of the center that have never been leased, including a space over 20,000 sq. ft. Everyone acknowledges that brick-and-mortar retail is more challenging now due to online shopping. However, this center has approximately a 23% vacancy rate, whereas the overall Twin Cities retail vacancy rate was 9.4 percent at the end of 2018. Poor design exacerbates the vacancy rate in this lifestyle center.